The two Democrats who voted against both articles of impeachment were Jeff Van Drew of New Jersey, who is now expected to join the Republicans, and Collin Peterson of Minnesota.
Both hold districts which are supportive of Mr Trump. Jared Golden, a Democrat from Maine, voted against the obstruction of Congress article.
Congressmen had rushed forward to the front of the House chamber when the first vote was called, signing red or green voting slips representing “nay” or “yea” and then handing them to the clerks to count.
There was a ripple of applause from Democrats when the first article of impeachment passed, but Ms Pelosi motioned for silence and their clapping soon stopped.
Ms Pelosi has repeatedly called impeachment a sad and solemn process, wary of appearing too partisan to voters. She wore black for the day of the vote itself.
“We could not be prouder or more inspired than by the moral courage of the House Democrats,” Ms Pelosi said in a press conference afterwards. “We never asked one of them how they were going to vote. We never whipped this vote.”
With less than a year to go before the election, Mr Trump’s campaign began the fightback against the impeachment vote within minutes of the result.
A fundraising email sent in Mr Trump’s name called for $4 million to be raised in the next 24 hours. “It’s US against THEM in this impeachment war,” it read. “And we need to strike first.”